JTK – Notes and Ramblings Things we have found …


DDC and CEC and more TV control

Filed under: General — taing @ 10:54 am

The quest to control the TVs and monitors continues. One promising option is DDC/C control. I was able to install ddcutil: sudo apt-get install ddcutil. For the older Acer units with Nvidia Ion graphics I was able to retrieve EDID but was unable to detect DDC.

The ddcutil website suggested adding the following in /etc/modprobe.d/nvidia-ddc :

options nvidia NVreg_RegistryDwords=RMUseSwI2c=0x01;RMI2cSpeed=100

I found that for the GeForce GT 710 machine this helped but not for the Acer with Ion graphics. Unfortunately, the Samsung T24C550 TV only seems to support a limits subset of DDC commands.

Next up was ddccontrol. After installing, it wasn’t able to detect DDC on the Acer with Ion but was more successful of the GeForce system. Unfortunately, there was no entry for the Samsung in the ddccontrol database so only generic commands appear to be available.

It is worth noting that even on the GeForce system once the monitor went to sleep it wasn’t detected at all by either ddcutil or ddccontrol.

Further notes on using ddcutil without being root can be found at https://frdmtoplay.com/using-ddccontrol-as-a-non-root-user/#:~:text=ddcutil%20is%20a%20CLI%20based,is%20not%20’officially’%20supported. This really comes down to adding users to the i2cusers group.


CEC is another option for controlling HDMI devices. While CEC can be used with a variety of devices it is especially useful on the Raspberry Pi. Again, unfortunately it is not supported by most Nvidia cards but is reported to work with the Nvidia Shield.

Your first step will be to install cec-utils: sudo apt-get install cec-utils. Hopefully a scan will turn up your device.

 echo "scan" | cec-client -s -d 1

If it does not it is worth looking into cec-util from the v4l-utils package. You may find to need to install/create the drivers for /dev/cec0.

For my Samsung, CEC was not enabled by default. Samsung refers to CEC as Anynet+. It can be enabled in the Service Menu. To enter the service menu, with the power to the TV off press MUTE 1 8 2 POWER quickly on the remote. Other Samsung units use INFO MENU MUTE POWER for the service menu.

I found some good info on using Raspberry Pi with CEC and a variety of devices at https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=35&t=15593&p=158409&hilit=cec_client#p158409.

An no discussion of using CEC would be complete without mentioning CEC-O-Matic. This website allows you to “build your own” CEC commands.

Samsung – In Depth

There is lots of in depth info on Samsung TVs and firmware at https://wiki.samygo.tv/index.php?title=This_is_the_first_document_you_have_to_read.

Vizio Smartcast

If you have a Vizio with Smartcast there is a bit of detective work shown on github.


Roku Remote Control

Filed under: General — taing @ 10:36 pm

Back in April I mentioned adding some Roku remote control. At this point I’m thinking more javascript than Python.

Roku has a good External Control Protocol reference online.

Sending commands

Unfortunately, the Roku API will not accept Cross Origin Request. This is not an issue if communicating from Node or Python but from the browser using xhr or fetch() you will get CORS errors. When sending POST for button presses you don’t care about the response for a “mode:’no-cors’ ” will work.

let resp = await fetch("http://roku-ip:8060/keypress/play", {method:'POST', mode:'no-cors'})

For the GET for status from the browser one option is a “proxy” add the “Access-Control-Allow-Origin” header. Borrowing the idea from https://medium.com/gitignore/building-a-roku-remote-web-app-1c0db0056be4 we set our Apache web server.

sudo pico /etc/apache2/apache2.conf to edit the config file and add the following lines:

<Location /roku>
    ProxyPass "http://roku-ip:8060/"
    ProxyPassReverse "/" 
    Header add "Access-Control-Allow-Origin" "*"

You will need to have several modules loaded in Apache for this to work: headers and proxy_http. This can be done with:

sudo a2enmod proxy_http
sudo a2enmod headers
sudo systemctl restart apache2

Deep Links

A very important link for launching directly into netflix content is https://unogs.com/search/. From this site you can find the contentid for much of the netflix content.

This allows for directly linking to content with something like:

curl -d '' "http://roku-ip:8060/launch/12?contentid=70136120&mediatype=series"

This is a simple POST to the URL with no body.

The folks at unofficial Netflix online Global Search also provide an API.


IR Blaster

Filed under: General — taing @ 3:30 pm

We get started with the Sparkfun WRL-15031. The hook-up guide is a good place to start. I am using the  IR Controller ESP8266 firmware.

I don’t have PlatformIO installed so I used the standard Arduino IDE. This was my first time with the ESP8266 so I needed to add the ESP8266 Arduino Core. In the current Arduino IDE this can be done by adding https://arduino.esp8266.com/stable/package_esp8266com_index.json to  the File>Preferences>Additional Boards Manager URLs field of the Arduino IDE. Then using the Board Manager from the Tools > Board menu you can install the esp8266 platform.

Once you have the IDE installed and the board set to Generic ESP8266 you need to make sure you have some libraries installed. ESP8266WebServer, ESP8266WiFi and WiFiManager but you may need to install ArduinoJson, Time and IRremoteESP8266.

It’s time to load the sketch, compile and upload.

The key here is to make sure you set the IO pin definitions correctly.

const int pinr1 = 13; // Receiving pin
const int pins1 = 4; // Transmitting preset 1
const int pins2 = 12; // Transmitting preset 2
const int pins3 = 12; // Transmitting preset 3
const int pins4 = 12; // Transmitting preset 4
const int configpin = 0; // Reset Pin
const int ledpin = 5;

I changed getExternalIP = false; and removed the user_id related and Alex integration code. I set ntpServerName to my internal NTP server. I changed the ntp sync time from 5 minutes to 12 hours near the end of the setup() function: setSyncInterval(43200);.

Once the code is compiled and loaded some testing is needed. On the initial run the ESP will be in AP mode with a SSID of IR Controller Configuration. You can connect and set access point info, hostname, static IP, subnet mask, port, default gateway and passcode.

Once you’re able to connect it is time to find some IR codes. There is a bit of good info in the Tasmota IR page. I found Sony DVD player remotes and some of the IR controlled LED votive candles. There is also good info for Samsung and Vizio TVs online. The codes from http://remotecentral.com often need to be manipulated before they are compatible with the ESP IR library. I created a Excel spreadsheet with worksheets for Vizio, Sony and Samsung.

Once we have the codes we can start controlling things from the web. For example:


will send a power on/off command of 32 bits in SAMSUNG format. After testing a bit of this I created a simple webpage to send a variety of codes.

There is more Arduino IR blaster info at Ken Shirriff’s blogpost 1 and post 2. For more info on Sony codes refer to https://www.sbprojects.net/knowledge/ir/sirc.php and http://www.hifi-remote.com/sony/.


screen at startup

Filed under: General — taing @ 11:33 pm

Sometimes it would be nice to have screen start a detached session at start-up. This isn’t complicated. There are two steps. The first is to create a script to be run in the detached session and make it executable. We’ll call it start.sh.

pico start.sh
chmod +x start.sh

The second is to edit /etc/rc.local to have the script run inside screen at start-up. Add the following line before the exit 0 line.

su - pi -c "screen -dm -S pistartup ~/start.sh"

That’s all there is to it. I found notes on this at https://coderwall.com/p/quflrg/run-a-script-on-startup-in-a-detached-screen-on-a-raspberry-pi.


More Flight tracking – adding RadarBox

Filed under: General — taing @ 5:55 pm

Radarbox.com is another flight tracking site similar to FlightAware, ADSB-Exchange and FR24. Instructions for feeding to Radarbox can be found at https://www.radarbox.com/sharing-data. Like most of the similar sites, feeding will get you an upgraded account for free. If you are already feeding others it is as simple as downloading and running a bash script.

Once you download and run the script a new repo will be added and their custom feeder app will be installed. Once their feeder starts running you can use sudo rbfeeder --showkey to see what your “key” is. A quick visit to the Radarbox website to create an account then “claim” your system at http://radarbox.com/raspberry-pi/claim and you are good to go.


Windows 10 and Iomega Floppy Plus

Filed under: General — taing @ 9:58 am

The Iomega Floppy Plus has been around for quite a while. It has CompactFlash and SD card slots in addition to being a 3.5″ floppy drive. When first plugged into a Windows 10 machine the CF and SD slots appear as drive letters. The Floppy remains silent and does not appear in the drive list.

You need to install drivers. Fortunately, while there are no official drivers from Iomega, there are drivers that work.

From Device Manager:

  • Select the X1DE-USB device from the Other Devices list.
  • Right-Click to Update Driver.
  • Browse My Computer for Driver Software.
  • Let me pick from a list of device drivers on my computer
  • Show All Devices
  • Manufacturer = NEC Systems / Model = NEC USB Floppy
  • Acknowledge the warningthat Windows can’t verify this is the right driver.

The floppy drive should work now. Refer to https://www.techgeekandmore.com/getting-the-iomega-usb-floppy-drive-working/ for a version of these instructions with screenshots.


Dust – adding the SDS011

Filed under: General,Home Automation — taing @ 11:23 am

A SDS011 dust sensor(datasheet and communications protocol) from Amazon has been added to openhab. There is lots of good info online describing the sensor performance and Arduino(1, 2), ESP32(1, 2) and Raspberry Pi(1, 2, 3, 4, 5) setup. There is even PC based software for testing.

Nettigo has a interesting article on using the sensor with a heater inline to improve performance in high humidity. They use a Sensirion SHT30 to automatically drive a MOSFET to trigger a PTC Heating element.

One of the nice things about the package as purchased is it comes with connectors and an USB/serial adapter to allow for connections using USB, TTL serial or i2c.

In the end, it was simplest to use the brand new Openhab plugin binding. The binding reports both 2.5 and 10 µg/m³. The binding allows for easy setup of reporting mode allowing the sensor to pretty much manage itself. For reporting mode, a reporting interval is set. The unit will wake up every interval and measure for 30 seconds then sleep for interval minus 30 seconds.

Since plugging the sensor directly into the openhab server in the basement wasn’t going to be very useful a modified version of the same method used to remote the Z-Wave dongle was used. This required installing ser2net on the Pi with the sensor and setting the correct comm parameters(9600 8N1) and making copies of /etc/default/socat.conf(updated with the proper device name and IP address of the Pi with the sensor) and /etc/init.d/socat (updated to point to unique .log and .pid files and the new .conf file).


Update to LaCrosse weather

Filed under: General,Home Automation,RTL-SDR — taing @ 5:51 pm

While these updates were made a while ago they weren’t documented. In the original post on the LaCrosse Weather station, rtl_433 sends mqtt data to our openhab server. On github we found a simple means to get rtl_433 to run as a service.

The core is to update /etc/rtl_433/rtl_433.conf. There is a sample file at conf/rtl_433.example.conf. Most important is the output mqtt... line for example:

output mqtt://jtk-openhab,devices=rtl_433/garage[/model]

If the Pi has multiple dongles you will also need to confirm the device line. Then create /etc/systemd/system/rtl_433-mqtt.service:

Description=rtl_433 to MQTT publisher

Enable the service with systemctl enable rtl_433-mqtt.service.


Migration – a new server for openhab

Filed under: General,Home Automation — taing @ 3:39 pm

It was time to migrate the openhab installation from the Raspberry Pi 3B to the NUC.

Before leaving the Pi a full backup is required. openhab-cli backup name_of_zipped_backup. Details on the backup and restore process can be found in the openhab forums.

The installation starts with a fresh Debian Buster(10.4) console only install. Openhabian was added from git following the guide at https://www.openhab.org/docs/installation/openhabian.html.

sudo apt-get install git screen curl gnupg
sudo git clone https://github.com/openhab/openhabian.git /opt/openhabian
sudo ln -s /opt/openhabian/openhabian-setup.sh /usr/local/bin/openhabian-config

The optional Influx db for persistence and Grafana for graphs were added from the openhabian-config tool. Chronograf 1.8 was also added manually ( sudo apt-get install chronograf ) since Influx after v1.3 doesn’t support the web console anymore. Note this is from the Influx repo which is added by the openhabian-setup tool.

At this point:
Openhab web interface -> http://your_ip:8080
Openhab console (ssh) -> your_ip:8101
Influx web admin (chronograf) -> http://your_ip:8888
Grafana -> http://your_ip:3000

Hopefully, at this point it’s time to restore the backup made earlier on the Pi: openhab-cli restore name_of_zipped_backup

Possible Issues

To resolve the issue of the openhab repo not being properly signed refer to the discussion in the openhab forums. You will need to execute:

wget -qO - 'https://bintray.com/user/downloadSubjectPublicKey?username=openhab' | sudo apt-key <strong>add</strong> -

If you encounter errors in the log file regarding RestDocs, for example, “ERROR] [core.karaf.internal.FeatureInstaller] - Failed installing ‘openhab-misc-restdocs’“, refer to the discussion in the forums. The secret is the second set of config files at /var/lib/openhab2/config/org/openhab/addons.config.

If you encounter broken graphs in the Openhab UI with error messages similar to [WARN ] [org.eclipse.jetty.server.HttpChannel] - /chart
java.lang.Error: Probable fatal error:No fonts found
refer to the discussion in the forums. The trick here is to install fontconfig for 32 bit arch even on a 64 bit machine: sudo apt-get install fontconfig:i386. A restart of the openhab service will be required after installing fontconfig: sudo systemctl restart openhab.service.

Remote Z-Wave

One of the main reasons openhab had stayed on the Pi so long was the location of the Pi and the Aeon Labs DSA02203-ZWUS Z-Wave Z-Stick Series 2 USB Dongle. This dongle creates /dev/ttyUSB0 for the z-wave binding. Our solution was to leave the Pi in place with the dongle and handle the serial port connection over Ethernet to the NUC. ser2net gets installed on the machine with the dongle. socat gets installed and run as a service on the openhab server machine. There is a great discussion on the in the openhab forums.

On the Pi:
sudo apt-get install ser2net
pico /etc/ser2net.conf
3333:raw:0:/dev/ttyUSB0:115200 8DATABITS NONE 1STOPBIT
On the NUC:
sudo apt-get install socat
git clone https://github.com/asaif/socat-init.git
sudo cp socat-init/socat /etc/init.d/
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/socat
sudo update-rc.d socat defaults
sudo cp socat-init/defaults/socat.conf /etc/default/

sudo nano /etc/default/socat.conf
OPTIONS="pty,link=/dev/ttyUSB0,raw,user=openhab,group=dialout,mode=777 tcp:ip_of_the_pi:3333"
sudo service socat restart

This will create /dev/ttyUSB0 on the NUC which looks like a serial device to the z-wav binding.

Final Steps

The final steps were to make sure everything that was pointing the to Pi was now pointing to the NUC.

The RFM69HCW 915MHz radio on the original openhab Pi remained in place listening to the Moteinos and sending mqtt but needed to have the destination updated. This required recompiling Gateway.c. Somehow the appropriate libraries weren’t already on the Pi for this: sudo apt-get install libmosquitto-dev libmosquittopp-dev. The recompile then when fine: g++ Gateway.c rfm69.cpp -o Gateway -lwiringPi -lmosquitto -DRASPBERRY -DDEBUG.

The code on the Pi sending outside temperature and humidity via mqtt from the am2315 i2c sensor needed to be recompiled to send to the proper destination: gcc piGateway.c -o piGateway -lwiringPi -lmosquitto -lam2315 -DRASPBERRY -DDEBUG.

The Pi running the Weather Alert / SAME code needed to have the destination address updated. This is a simple change to the mqtt command line parameter in the script. The same Pi also runs the Seneye aquarium monitor code which needed an edit in suddriver.py to update the mqtt destination.

The Pi running rtl_433 for the LaCrosse weather station integration required an update to rtl_433.conf to point the mqtt data to the new destination. The same Pi also runs the as3935 Lightning detector. A quick modification to the python script to fix the mqtt destination got this back online.



Filed under: General,Home Automation — taing @ 4:50 pm

An article on the Raspberry Shake got me looking for more on earthquake sensors. I found the Omron D7S. Datasheet here.

The chip can be found at both Mouser and Digikey. It is a small SMT mountable PCB that communicates via i2c. The datasheet provides little info on actually programming the device. Googling about found two libraries that helped shed some light on things.

First, from Omron, a python library on github. The platform of choice is a Pi Zero W with Rasbian Buster Lite. To get started, install git, i2c-tools, python3-smbus, and python3-rp-gpio. Clone the repo and the software is ready.

Connecting the sensor to the Pi only needed four wires – 3.3v, gnd, SDA, SCL. 10k pull-up resistors are used for SDA and SCL. A 10k pull-up was also added for the sensor “settings” pin. Both Vcc and both Ground pins on the sensor need to be wired.

  • Pi pin 1 – Vcc to Sensor pins 1 & 9
  • Pi pin 1 – Vcc to 10K pullup resistors to sensor pins 4, 5 & 7
  • Pi pin 9 – Ground to Sensor pin 6 & 10
  • Pi pin 3 – SDA to sensor pin 5
  • Pi pin 5 – SCL to sensor pin 4

Sensor pins 2 and 3 provide optional interrupts. Pin 3 goes low when a quake is in happening. Pin 2 goes low to signal suggested shutdown due to expected significant damage. These pins are not used in this setup.

sudo i2cdetect -y 1 showed the chip at address 0x55. sudo python3 sample_d7s ran as advertised.

I added a few line of code to have the output go to a Google Sheet and set the unit up in the basement. Details on how this works can be found in an earlier post.

The second library is for Arduino. It appears to provide much greater detail on the registers and parameters on the chip but I have not tested it.

An additional article on How to Make an Earthquake Alarm is a alternative approach.

The chip measures quake intensity not magnitude. The measurement correlates strongly with the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale. A discussion on various seismic intensity scales can be found here or copied here.

Omron shared a more detailed datasheet.


Lightning + Google

Filed under: General,Home Automation — taing @ 1:45 pm

Based on the trick seen here we have added Google Sheets logging to the lightning Python script.

A copy of the example sheet in the original GitHub with a few changes to the column headers, publish the API and that side is all set.

For the Python side we needed to “import urllib.request” and request the url. Then is was as simple as “r = urllib.request.urlopen(urlStr+outStr)”. In this case urlStr is the url from Google and outStr is the data. For example, ‘?type=”Strike”&distance=32&energy=200’.

When publishing the Google Sheet Web API the simple choice is anonymous. I have not looked at handling credentials for Google login in the Python script.


Filed under: General,Home Automation — taing @ 1:18 pm

My original Embedded Adventures MOD-1016v8 lightning detector based on the as3935 failed. I ordered a replacement from Sparkfun. The Sparkfun hook-up guide discusses the sensors I2C interface being not as reliable as the SPI interface. Sparkfun also has a github for the PCB. Originally I was using code based on a Python I2C library. So a change is needed.

My first thought was to port the Sparkfun Arduino library over to Raspberry Pi using wiringPi. It should be noted that as of August 2019 the author of wiringPi is no longer supporting it. This was a bit frustrating but after a bit of testing with the scope and bus pirate and a lot of googling. This issues seem to be resolved.

At first there was data on MOSI but nothing coming back. After attaching the Bus Pirate using the setup below:

m 5 (for SPI mode)
Speed: 125khz
Clock polarity: Idle low (default)
Output Clock Edge: Active to idle (default)
Input sample phase: End (NOT default)
CS: /CS (default)
Output type: Normal

I was able to communicate. Notice the Input Phase angle being set to “end”. When it was set to “middle”, the default, writes worked but reads shifted the result one bit to the right effectively dropping the LSB. This turns out to be vital for the wiringPi code also. The standard SPI help page for wiringPi doesn’t mention anything about mode or phase. But our friend google gave me a discussion about possible modes. So instead of the basic wiringPiSPISetup(channel, speed) function I needed to use wiringPiSPISetupMode(channel, speed, mode). Bit 0 is clock phase, bit 1 is clock polarity. The other bits are not possible via wiringPi but as discussed elsewhere can be set by a direct ioctl call.

I also slowed the speed down toe 125khz from the original 2Mhz.

For wiringPi i used the following pins:

GND: pi pin 25
SCK: pi pin 23 (SCLK)
MISO: pi pin 21 (MISO)
MOSI: pi pin 19 (MOSI)
3.3v: pi pin 17
INT: pi pin 15 (GPIO 22)
CS: pi pin 24 (CE0 / GPIO 8)

I considered a version using bcm2835 but didn’t go very far down this road. No work has been done on that front.

I also decided to play a bit with Sparkfun and CircuitPython and sparkfun-circuitpython-qwiicas3935 1.0.3. The complete CircuitPython bundle is on github. The as3935 bundle can also be found on github.

The Pi I was working with is a Pi II with Jesse installed. Installing Python 3.5 or higher on Jesse is more work than simply making a newer Buster Lite sd card. Then it is a matter of following the Sparkfun / AdaFruit instructions to get all of the necessities installed:

sudo apt-get install python3-pip
sudo pip3 install --upgrade setuptools
pip3 install RPI.GPIO
pip3 install sparkfun-circuitpython-qwiicas3935

The secret to getting this to work is realizing that you can’t use CE0/GPIO 8 for CS with the code provided. Circuit Python Bus Device(documentation) can’t manage the pin directly when SPI is in use and the hardware doesn’t handle it correctly either. Using Pi Pin 13 / GPIO 27 / circuit Python board.D27 as CS and things work fine.

An alternative is to change the _read_register() function to use write_readinto() in place of write() followed by readinto(). Using these the system manages CE0 just fine for CS.

The library file sparkfun_qwiicas3935.py is installed at /usr/local/lib/python3.7/dist-packages. My mods can be found here. The key bit is:

<code>self._spi.write_readinto(bytearray([addr,0]), result</code>)
# self._spi.write(bytearray([addr]))
<code># read the next byte after writing the address</code>
# self._spi.readinto(result)

The modified code also comments out the manual CS line manipulation.

Additional resources can be found at Instructables.

A copy of the AS3935 datasheet can be found here.

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